Today, once again, the sun is considered as a source that is eternal, clean, free of cost and in harmony with all the environmental and psychological aspects of humans, and its increasing use in buildings, especially with crises caused by lack of energy, It supports the opinion that gradually a new renaissance has been created in the use of sunlight. Researches show that intensity, type of source, color, direction and method of distribution of light in different environments of human activity may affect his behavior, mood, productivity and efficiency to a great extent. Meanwhile, the role of natural light as the most perfect and desirable light is undeniable. Natural light and visual communication with the outside environment in human living spaces, including workplaces, recreation, education, etc., in addition to increasing efficiency and effectiveness, reduce anxiety, improve behavior, and maintain and increase health and comfort. The set of these effects can be found in the form of two processes of psychology and psychobiology. Among these, categories such as mental and physical health of a person and his efficiency are among the most important subcategories of the second process, which gradually received attention from the late 70s and early 80s. The findings of researchers in this field have caused a large number of lighting designers, architects and lighting designers to agree on the positive effects of these factors on human behavior, education, health, vitality, productivity and longevity.
Lighting is always an inseparable part of human living environment, and about 80 to 85% of our impression of the world is achieved through visual communication with the environment. Vision is the result of the eye’s performance in light, and our perception of space depends on its brightness. On the other hand, “lighting has many effects on our psyche, which may affect people’s moods”. Today, although extensive research has been conducted on the importance of lighting and especially natural light on humans, and undeniable evidence has been obtained on the positive effect of daylight and enjoying natural scenery on people’s health, comfort, and productivity, it is surprising that Why do many designers and architects consider only visibility (clarity) and functionality (efficiency) in lighting, and in window design only the beauty of the facade and not so measured view to the outside.
Of course, the complex effect of daylight on humans from various aspects is not yet fully known, but we can currently benefit from the recent findings in this field. Architects and designers can help to increase the efficiency and physical-psychological health of the residents of the buildings through the careful design of the windows.
Searching for the influence of natural daylight on people’s lives, due to its vastness and complexity, requires a comprehensive study of all the processes that make it up. These influences are generally categorized into two major subcategories: cognitive psychology and psychobiology.
The phenomenon of light in general and daylight in particular is one of the most basic physical and psychological needs of humans. This factor, while maintaining health, provides more favorable and pleasant conditions for people due to creating a sense of connection and familiarity with the natural environment, and therefore can create comfort on the one hand and increase efficiency on the other hand. On the other hand, the process of light perception is an individual thing that depends on the emotional characteristics of the users and the environmental conditions of the space around them. From the point of view of the community of professional lighting designers and lighting engineers, there are many evidences confirming the qualitative effect of ambient lighting on the efficiency, comfort and health of humans.
Lighting with daylight is a process beyond creating suitable conditions for seeing objects. This process has a special psychological effect that can clearly affect people’s moods. In this process, its perceptual aspect is more important than other aspects.
The results of the researchers’ research show that lighting affects people in two ways: directly and indirectly: “The direct effect is caused by changes in the quality of vision through lighting and by changing the stimuli of the visual system or changing the working conditions of the visual system. While its indirect effect is the result of light’s ability to attract attention, change motivation, state, behavior and correct the hormonal balance of the human body. Lighting can affect the physiological reactions of the human body as well as his visual perceptions.
The set of these effects can be found in the form of two processes of perceptual psychology and psychobiology. In the meantime, categories such as attention and motivation, mental and physical health of man and his efficiency are among the most important subsets of these processes, which gradually received attention from the eighties.
Processes of cognitive psychology
When we look around, what we see is actually the reflection of light that shines from a light source on various objects. “This is done through a set of detailed mental processes that transform the visual patterns in the brain into perceptual patterns of the familiar world around. These visual patterns are not static, but are constantly subject to change and displacement. This happens due to the special movements of the eyeball during eye search. On the other hand, even in spite of blinking the eyes when seeing objects, the surrounding world is seen as relatively continuous and static, while the human perceptual system is set in such a way that it can be sensitive to continuous changes and react to them.