At the same time as the population increases, the number of residents of metropolises such as Tehran, Isfahan, Mashhad and Shiraz is increasing day by day. The problem of lack of housing is one of the most important problems of the residents of these cities. Due to the lack of suitable land for new constructions in big cities, the vertical growth of residential units has increased unprecedentedly compared to previous decades. Buildings that in the past decades were usually built as villas with a maximum height of one or two floors have turned into four to twelve floor apartments. With the growth of urbanization and the increase in the height of buildings, bringing natural light to the residents of dimly lit buildings has been more and more considered. In this article, we present solutions to solve the problem of lack of natural light in buildings.
Dimensional standards of skylights (patios) in buildings
Architects play an important role in the amount of light in high-rise residential units. The use of some designs in building spaces can increase the amount of transmitted light to a large extent. The use of large windows and doors and the installation of patios and skylights suitable for apartments play a very important role in increasing the light of the units.
According to the rules and regulations of urban development in Tehran and Isfahan municipalities, in plots with plots smaller than or equal to 200 square meters, the minimum area of skylights (by skylights is the patio or backyard) in the main spaces such as living room, bedroom and reception is equal to six percent of the area. It is a building. For example, in a building with an area of 150 square meters of main space, 9 square meters of skylights are required.
In buildings with an area larger than 200 square meters, the existence of a skylight with an area of 12 square meters is sufficient for this apartment. The presence of a skylight or patio in the building, in addition to helping to bring fresh air into the units, can also provide natural daylight for rooms that lack natural light and are located on the non-sunny side. These rooms have windows that open to the skylight, which is foreseen in the architect’s initial plan.
Which of the buildings have the problem of lack of light and which do not have this problem?
In buildings whose height is maximum three or four floors, if the dimensions of the skylights are within the standard limits and according to the municipal regulations, proper light reaches the lower floors. In these buildings, the ground floor and first floor units also have acceptable (but not necessarily sufficient) lighting. But in buildings where the dimensions of the skylights are smaller than the standard or the height of the building is more than three stories, proper light is not transmitted to the lower floors. In these buildings, despite the presence of patios and patio-facing windows in the units, the lower floors are usually dimly lit. Sometimes there is a need to turn on the light all day long in the rooms. The units on the lower floors of these complexes do not have the so-called suitable spirit for life. Sale and rent of these units are usually done at a lower price and with a longer delay than other units.
What is the solution to bring sunlight to the lower floors of dimly lit buildings?
Modern and intelligent systems to bring natural sunlight to the residents of buildings with more than three floors or buildings with small skylight dimensions have been invented and used all over the world. The use of optical fiber that transmits sunlight, optical tubes that reflect sunlight, and the use of smart solar shutters are among its types.